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2nd and 3rd grade reading skills:

  • Ask and answer who, what, where, when, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • Recount stories and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
  • Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
  • Determine the meaning of words/phrases based on how they are used in a text.
  • Distinguish between literal and non literal language.
  • Describe the overall structure of a story, including beginning, middle, and end.
  • Acknowledge and understand different character points of view.
  • Distinguish own point of view from that of narrator or characters.
  • Use text evidence to support comprehension and understanding of characters, setting, and/or plot.
  • Make connections between self, text, and world.


2nd and 3rd grade writing skills:

  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
  1. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
  2. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
  3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly:
  1. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
  3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section.


  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences:
  1. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  2. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
  3. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
  4. Provide a sense of closure.


  • With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • Create and present a poem, narrative, play, art work, or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class, with support as needed.
  • With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.


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